Please help support the development and maintenance of this educational site. Donate at PayPal

The following overview will hopefully improve your understanding of Area Under the Curve calculations for one or two-compartment open models.

Total body clearance is independent of the pharmacokinetic model used (one, two or non-compartmental model). The AUC is dependent on dose and clearance and is the same value when calculated for an individual using one or two-compartment model equations as long as clearance is accurately determined with each model. To improve the accuracy of AUC calculations serum levels should be drawn in patients with stable renal function as close to steady state as possible, at which time little error will be introduced by using a one-compartment model if the drug displays two-compartment kinetics. In practice, levels are usually drawn after two days of maintenance therapy when a loading dose has been given for the initial calculation and then repeated periodically thereafter. Levels should be drawn after the same dose and not around a dose as administration timing and infusion duration errors will affect the accuracy of the calculations. Times entered should be the actual values and not estimates.

AUC can not be accurately determined using only a trough when intermittent infusions are administered. A peak and a trough are required and a series of calculations are performed to calculate K, Vd, and finally Cl as outlined below. If only a trough is drawn the Vd must be assumed, at a potentially erroneous value which can lead to errors in AUC calculations as shown in several recent studies using Bayesian methods with two compartmental models. Both a peak and trough are recommended after several days of therapy to determine AUC accurately. Levels drawn early are less accurate than those drawn later in therapy when calculating AUC.

Linear and Insight Bayesian two-concentration methods are equivalent in AUC
calculations. Bayesian one-concentration methods demonstrated significant
variability, lacked high-level agreement, and underestimated AUC at high AUCs
compared to the linear and Bayesian two-concentration methods^{1}. An
one-compartment Bayesian model was compared to six Bayesian two-compartment
models without a loading dose. AUC calculations with two-concentrations had less
bias than one-concentration with progressively less bias for all models as
levels were drawn later in therapy. One and two compartment models were
equivalent using two-concentrations at steady state and two-concentrations had
significantly less bias than one-concentration calculations^{2}. A
comparison of AUC predictions at 0-24 hours and 24-48 hours after the start of
therapy with one-compartment and two-compartment models showed equivalence when
a peak and trough were used. One-compartment models outperformed two-compartment
models when only troughs were used. The two-compartment model over predicted the
AUC when only troughs were used^{3}. ** **
**Current ASHSP/IDSA/PIDS/SIDP guidelines recommend two post-dose concentrations
when using Bayesian software or first-order equations**^{5}.

The goals of vancomycin AUC based dosing and monitoring are to minimize toxicity and achieve efficacy by keeping the AUC in the range of 400-600 mg*hour/Liter per day. Without accurate AUC calculations, these goals may not be achieved.

O**ne-Compartment Model**

**AUC Method One**_{ } **(mg*hour/Liter per Day)** =**
[(Cminss + Cmaxss)*(T'/2) + [(Cpmaxss - Cminss)/(ln(Cmaxss/Cminss)/(Tau-T'))]]*24/Tau**

**AUC Method One**_{ } **(mg*hour/Liter per Day)** =**
[(Cminss + Cmaxss)*(T'/2) + [(Cpmaxss - Cminss)/ K)]*24/Tau**

K(1/hr) = Ln(Cmax drawn post-dose / Cmin drawn post-dose) / Time between Levels (hours)

Cmaxss extrapolated = Cpmax drawn post-dose / exp(-K*Time level drawn after end of the infusion (hours))

Cminss extrapolated = Cmin drawn post-dose * exp(-K*(Tau - Infusion Period -Time level drawn after end of the infusion(hours)))

T' = Infusion Period (hours)

Tau = Dosage interval (hours)

**AUC Method Two (mg*hour/Liter per day)** **= (Dose (mg) / Cl(L/hr) )*(24/Tau)**

K(1/hr) = Ln (Cmax drawn / Cmin drawn) / Time between Levels (Hours)

Vd(L) = Dose(mg)*(1-exp(-K*Infusion Period)) * exp(-K*Time level drawn post-dose(hours)) / (Cpmax drawn*K*Infusion Period*(1-exp(-K*Tau)))

Cl (L/hr) = K(1/hours)*Vd (L)

AUC (mg*hour/Liter per day) = (Dose(mg) / Cl(l/hr)) *(24/Tau)

Optional calculations

Cmaxss = Dose(mg)*(1-exp(-K*Infusion Period)) * / (Vd*K*Infusion Period*(1-exp(-K*Tau)))

Cminss = Cmaxss* exp (-K*(Tau-infusion Period))

**AUC may also be derived by calculating serum levels versus time for a dosage
interval at steady state and then summing them serum levels using standard one-compartment steady state equations. This is displayed in the downloadable
example. **

Cpmaxss = Dose*(1-exp(-K*Infusion Period))/(VD*K*T'*(1-exp(-K*Tau)))

1. Sum (Cpss at each hour post-infusion for a time equal to dosage interval) = Cpmaxss *exp(-K*Time post-dose) for each hour post-infusion from 1 to Tau hours post-infusion.

2. Sum (Cp at each hour during Infusion) = Dose*(1-exp(-K*Time into Infusion(hours)))/(Vd*K*T') for each hour of infusion length (hour 1 and hour 2 if a two hour infusion). This is the rise in serum level during the infusion due to a single dose.

AUC(mg*hour/Liter per day) = (Sum 1 + Sum 2)*(24/Tau) * (Time Interval in Hours)

For drugs with fast elimination the trapezoidal method of should be used for AUC calculation or the interval between levels may be decreased.

AUC = [(Cp1)/2]*(T1) + [(Cp3+Cp2)/2] * (T3-T2) ....for all calculated levels * (24/Tau)

**Two-Compartment Model**

Due to complexity of calculations a spreadsheet or computer program with data fitting algorithms is used for two compartment calculations.

**Cl (L/hr) = K _{10} (1/hours) *Vdcentral compartment (L)**

**AUC** (mg*hour/Liter per Day)** **= [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha^{2})*(1-exp(-alpha*Infusion
Length)))* (1-exp(-alpha*(Tau-Infusion length)))/(1-exp(-alpha*Tau)) + ((beta-K21)/beta^{2})*(1-exp(-beta*Infusion
Length)))*(1-exp(-beta*(Tau-Infusion Length)))/(1-exp(-beta*Tau))]*24/Tau + (Peak+Trough)*(Infusion
Length/2)*(24/Tau).

**AUC **(mg*hour/Liter per Day) = (Dose(mg)/Clearance(L/hr)
)*(24/Tau)

The method of summing levels notes above may be used for two compartment model too.

Cpmaxss = [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*Infusion Time)) / (1-exp(-alpha *Tau)) + ((beta-K21)/beta)*(1-exp(-beta*Infusion Time))/ (1-exp(-beta*Tau))]

1. Sum (Cpss at each hour post-infusion for a time equal to dosage interval) = [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*Infusion Time)) *exp (-alpha *time since end of infusion) / (1-exp(-alpha *Tau)) + ((beta-K21)/beta)*(1-exp(-beta*Infusion Time))*exp(-beta*time since end of infusion) / (1-exp(-beta*Tau))] for each hour post-infusion from 1 to Tau hours post-infusion.

2. Sum (Cp at each hour during Infusion) = [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*Time into infusion up to infusion length)) + ((beta-K21)/beta)*(1-exp(-beta*Time into infusion up to infusion length))] for each hour of infusion length (hour 1 and hour 2 if a two hour infusion). This is the rise in serum level during the infusion due to a single dose.

**AUC** (mg*hour/Liter per Day) = (Sum 1 + Sum 2)*(24/Tau) * (Time
Interval between levels in Hours)

For drugs with fast elimination the trapezoidal method should be used for AUC calculation or the interval between levels may be decreased.

AUC = [(C1)/2]*(T1) + [(C3+C2)/2] * (T3-T2) ....for all calculated levels * (24/Tau)

**AUC for One
and
Two Compartment Models Calculations and Comparisons, Excel Spreadsheet**

Vancomycin Bayesian AUC Dosing Calculator For Steady State Levels Using a Peak and Trough: one-compartment Model, Downloadable Excel File

Vancomycin Bayesian AUC Dosing Calculator: one-compartment Model, Downloadable Excel File, open compartment open model, for use with varying dosing frequencies, doses, and steady state or Non-Steady State levels using the method of superposition. The tool creates a data file of data fittings that may be used to perform MUEs. The Solver Add-in must be available for the file to run. In Excel do the following: Click File, Click Options, Click Add-ins, Manage Excel Add-in Click Go, Check Solver Add-in, and select OK. Excel Program Instructions

**In the following graphics the clearance is set to the same value in both
the one and two compartment models. A loading dose is not given. The volume of
distribution of the one-compartment model is varied. The Vd of the two-compartment model is unchanged. These examples demonstrate that clearance
determines the AUC at steady state, and not the model. **

**Carreno Model Creatinine Clearance 120 ml/min Dose: 1 gm Q8H Vd 1
compartment 1 L/kg Weight 100 kg**

**Carreno Model Creatinine Clearance 120 ml/min Dose: 1 gm Q8H Vd 1-compartment 0.65 L/kg Weight 100 kg**

**Carreno Model Creatinine Clearance 120 ml/min Dose: 1 gm Q8H Vd 1-compartment 0.5 L/kg Weight 100 kg**

**In the following graphics, the clearance is set to the same value in both
the one and two-compartment models. A loading dose is not given. The volume of
distribution of the one-compartment model is varied. The Vd of the two-compartment model is unchanged. These examples demonstrate when calculating of
AUC using the linear one-compartment equation (one-compartment Model Method One)
levels should not be drawn early into therapy as the error in the calculation is
increased. This method is best applied after a loading dose and two days
of maintenance therapy in a patient with stable renal function. **

**Carreno Model Creatinine Clearance 120 ml/min Dose: 1 gm Q8H Vd 1-compartment 1 L/kg Weight 100 kg**

**Carreno Model Creatinine Clearance 120 ml/min Dose: 1 gm Q8H Vd 1-compartment 0.5 L/kg Weight 100 kg**

**References**

1.
Comparison of Bayesian-derived and first-order analytic equations for
calculation of vancomycin area under the curve

Katie B Olney 1 2, Katie L Wallace 1 2, Ryan P Mynatt 1, David S Burgess 2,
Kaitlyn Grieves 2, Austin Willett 2, Johann Mani 2, Alexander H Flannery 1 2

Affiliations expand

PMID: 35134264 DOI: 10.1002/phar.2670

2.
Pharmacokinetic equations versus Bayesian guided vancomycin monitoring:
Pharmacokinetic model and model-informed precision dosing trial simulations

Abdullah Aljutayli 1 2, Daniel J G Thirion 1 3, Guillaume Bonnefois 4, Fahima
Nekka 3 5 6

Affiliations expand

PMID: 35170243 PMCID: PMC9010252 DOI: 10.1111/cts.13210

3.
Comparison of area under the curve for vancomycin from one- and two-compartment
models using sparse data

Nyein Hsu Maung 1, Janthima Methaneethorn 2, Thitima Wattanavijitkul 1, Tatta
Sriboonruang 3

Affiliations expand

PMID: 34285111 PMCID: PMC8899690 (available on 2023-03-01) DOI:
10.1136/ejhpharm-2020-002637

4.
Peak Measurement for Vancomycin AUC Estimation in Obese Adults Improves
Precision and Lowers Bias

Manjunath P Pai 1, Joseph Hong 2, Lynne Krop 2

Affiliations expand

PMID: 28096158 PMCID: PMC5365684 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02490-16

5. Therapeutic Monitoring of Vancomycin for Serious Methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus Infections: A Revised Consensus Guideline and Review by
the American Society of Health-system Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases
Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society
of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

Michael J Rybak 1 2 3, Jennifer Le 4, Thomas P Lodise 5, Donald P Levine 2 3,
John S Bradley 6 7, Catherine Liu 8 9, Bruce A Mueller 10, Manjunath P Pai 10,
Annie Wong-Beringer 11, John C Rotschafer 12, Keith A Rodvold 13, Holly D Maples
14, Benjamin Lomaestro 15

Affiliations expand

PMID: 32658968 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciaa303

6.
Cost-benefit analysis comparing trough, two-level AUC and Bayesian AUC dosing
for vancomycin

Brian V Lee 1, Gary Fong 2, Michael Bolaris 3, Michael Neely 4, Emi Minejima 1,
Amy Kang 2, Grace Lee 5, Cynthia L Gong 6

Affiliations expand

PMID: 33221430 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.11.008

**Equations**

**Single Dose IV bolus Two Compartment Open Model**

Cp(t) = A*exp(-alpha*Time) + B*exp(-beta*Time) , A and B are the y intercepts of the exponential functions, alpha is the hybrid macro distribution rate constant and beta is the hybrid macro elimination rate constant. Determination of A, B, alpha and beta is done by curve stripping serum levels after an IV bolus dose and requires numerous levels. Curve stripping which will not be discussed here. See a text book for a description.

A = DoseIV*(alpha-k21)/(Vc*(alpha-beta)), A is the extrapolated peak from the distribution phase.

B = DoseIV*((K21-beta)/(Vc*(alpha-beta)), B is the extrapolated peak from the elimination phase.

T1/2 distribution = 0.693/alpha

T1/2 beta = 0.693/beta, time to steady state is calculated using beta as it is the smaller rate constant

K10, K12, K21 are 1st order micro rate constants that can be used to calculate the macro rate constants alpha and beta.

K10 = Cl / Volume of distribution in central compartment. Rate of elimination from central compartment. For vancomycin clearance is the parameter related to renal function.

K12 = Q / Volume of distribution in central compartment. Rate of transfer to peripheral compartment. Q is clearance between compartments.

K21 = Q / Volume of distribution in the peripheral compartment. Rate of transfer to the central compartment. Q is clearance between compartments.

alpha = 0.5 [(K10+k12+k21) + ( (K10+K12+K21)^2 - (4*K21*K10))^0.5], distribution rate constant and is larger than beta.

beta = 0.5 [(K10+k12+k21) - ( (K10+K12+K21)^2 - (4*K21*K10))^0.5], overall elimination rate constant, which is similar to the one-compartment K if levels are analyzed post distribution. Changes in renal function or clearance (Cl) impact beta but have little impact on the calculated alpha, and no impact on K12 and K21.

Vdcenteral = Dose / (A+B), **Independent variabl**e, central
compartment, elimination usually occurs from this compartment. For vancomycin
the
kidney is located in the central compartment.

Vd peripheral = Q/K21,** Independent variable, **second compartment
where drug is distributed into and out of. **Acts as a repository with
prolong elimination.**

Cl = S*F*D / AUC, **Independent variable**, this parameter is
related to renal function for vancomycin. Clearance is from the central
compartment. Clearance is the same regardless of number of compartments and can
calculated without the consideration of the compartment model.

Q = K12*Vc = K21*Vperipheral, **Independent variable intra compartment
clearance.**

Micro constants can be calculated in the following sequence after curve stripping of an IV bolus dose using A, B, alpha and beta determined during curve stripping.

K21 = (A*beta + B*alpha) / (A+B), micro rate constant

K10 = alpha*beta / K21, micro rate constant

K12 = alpha+beta-K10-K21, micro rate constant

Vcenteral = Dose / (A+B)

**Vdsteady state** = Vc * (K12+K21)/K21, **true
pharmacokinetic parameter only affected by distribution and not elimination. It
is best used when correlating
data from one patient to another and can be used when calculating loading doses except for
constant infusions where Vc should be used to calculate the loading dose**.

Vdsteady state = Vc + Vp

Vdperipheral = Vdsteady state - Vcentral

Alpha > beta, alpha > K21, K21 > beta

**Most two compartment pharmacokinetic studies publish Vc, Vp, Q and Cl.
These are the four ****independent
parameters**** for a two compartment model. The other
calculated parameters are dependent on these.**

The smaller the value of Vc/Vdextrapolate the greater the degree of multi-compartment characteristic the serum levels display

**Vd extrapolate** = Dose/B, = Vc*(alpa-beta)/(K21-beta), same as one-compartment
model Vd derived from curve stripping. As the calculated K calculated, using two
levels post-dose, changes during the dosing interval the Vd exptrapolate value
will change depending on when the levels are drawn. This should not be used for
loading doses as it calculates a higher value than Vss and will give an
excessive dose.

(Vd extrapolate / Vdbeta) -1 = fraction of error in the total clearance when one assume an one-compartment model instead of a two or higher compartment model.

**Vd beta** = Dose*alpha/(B*alpha + A*beta) = K10*Vc/beta = Cltotal/beta,
=Dose/(Beta*AUC)

**Vd extrap > Vd beta > Vdss > Vc**

**Two Compartment Intermittent Infusion Open Model Equations**

**Loading Dose and Initial Levels**

**Use Vss or Vbeta to calculate the loading dose. Due to drug passing into
the peripheral compartment the loading dose is normal larger than that
calculated for the typical one-compartment model for vancomycin for the Goti
model. Early levels during therapy
without an adequate load, may erroneously appear as if a higher maintenance dose
is needed if a two compartment model truly applies. Normal
early initial levels, 15 mcg/ml after one day of maintenance therapy,
without an adequate load will result in super therapeutic levels. The earlier
the levels are drawn the greater the divergence becomes and level predictions
appear non intuitive if the Goti model truly applies. It is better to wait
until day three of therapy, two full days of maintenance therapy, to drawn
levels to minimize the impact of the loading dose on serum levels. This will
also help to minimize the affect of a biased Bayesian model on dosage
calculations.**

**LD = (Cpdesired*T'*Vc*(beta-alpha)* [1/((K21-alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*T'))/alpha)
+ 1/((beta-K21)*(-1-exp(-beta*T'))/beta)] is the most accurate
method to calculate loading dose as it calculates the loading dose for the
desired peak after the first dose
is infused assuming no drug is already on board. The dose calculated will be
lower than using Vss for the Goti model. **

LD = VdsteadyState * Desired Serum Concentration.

LD = (Vcentral*(K12+K21)/K21) * Desired Serum Concentration. If an large dose is calculated the dose may be split into several smaller doses given every 4 hours to minimize the chance of red man's syndrome.

**Single Dose Intermittent Infusion**

Level(s) after infusion complete

Cp(t) = [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]* [((K21-alpha)/alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*Time since start of infusion up to infusion length)) *exp (-alpha *time since end of infusion or zero if during infusion) + ((beta-K21)/beta)*(1-exp(-beta*Time since start of infusion up to infusion length))*exp(-beta*time since end of infusion or 0 if during infusion)]

The original posting before 3/12/22 had an error in the above equation which was found in two pharmacokinetic textbooks and is now corrected. The equation above was checked using the method of superposition for the two-compartment model bolus dose equation. A dose of 1000 mg infused over 2 hours was converted to 120 bolus doses of 8.33 mg each given every minute for 120 minutes and the resulting levels of all doses for 12 hours were calculated and summed for each minute. The calculated peak and trough were then compared to the values calculated using the above equation and they were the same. The attached file has the calculations. Excel file

**Multiple Doses Intermittent Infusions**

To determine steady state levels 1/(1-exp(-alpha*Tau) is divided into the first part of right side of equation above and 1/(1-exp(-beta*Tau) is divided into the second part of the right side of the equation.

Cp(t) = [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha)*(1-exp(-alpha*Time into infusion up to infusion length)) *exp (-alpha *time since end of infusion or 0 if during infusion) / (1-exp(-alpha *Tau)) +

((beta-K21)/beta)*(1-exp(-beta*Time into infusion up to infusion length))*exp(-beta*time since end of infusion or zero if during infusion) / (1-exp(-beta*Tau))]

Time into infusion = time since start of infusion to infusion end, then time into infusion is constant at the infusion length.

T'=infusion length

The original posting before 3/12/22 had an error in above equation which was found in two pharmacokinetic textbooks and is now corrected.

**AUC per 24 hours**= [Dose / ((T'*Vc)*(beta-alpha))]*[((K21-alpha)/alpha^{2})*(1-exp(-alpha*Infusion
Length)))* (1-exp(-alpha*(Tau-Infusion length)))/(1-exp(-alpha*Tau)) + ((beta-K21)/beta^{2})*(1-exp(-beta*Infusion
Length)))*(1-exp(-beta*(Tau-Infusion Length)))/(1-exp(-beta*Tau))]*24/Tau + (Peak+Trough)*(Infusion
Length/2)*(24/Tau). Error in equation corrected 8/15/22

**AUC per 24 hours** = Dose(mg)/Clearance(L/hr) *(24/Tau)

**Method of superposition**

Use the single dosing equation above to calculate the amount of drug remaining in the body at the time of interest for each dose and then sum the individual amounts from all the doses.

The amount of drug in the body from the initial level drawn before the first dose in the series may be added by calculating Cp(t) = Cpinitial *exp(-beta*time). This assumes the level was drawn in the post-distribution phase of any prior dose.

Not yet available: The following Excel spreadsheet demonstrates the method of superposition. It also can be used to demonstrate the impact of changes to the independent pharmacokinetic parameters on serum levels.

If the dosing interval is less than 10 x T1/2 accumulation of drug will occur. 1/(1-exp(-beta*Tau)) can be used to calculate accumulation ratio.

**Beta Half-Life:**

**Due to redistribution of drug from the central compartment the apparent
T1/2 changes during the dosing interval.** The following example uses a
patient: 70 inches, 70 kg, creatinine clearance 15 ml/min, clearance 1.14 L/hr,
Vc 58.4 liters, Vp 38.4 liters, Q 6.5 L/hr, 1000 mg Q36H giving a peak of
30.9 mcg/ml and trough of 18.8 mcg/ml. Depending of the time levels are
drawn the apparent T1/2 changes. Levels drawn early give a short half life.
After 10 alpha half lives calculated beta half life is accurate. This can cause
confusion as early levels may be low yet give high predicted state state levels
if a two compartment model applies.

**If a one-compartment model is used, as long a level are drawn
across the dosing interval (peak 2 hours post-infusion, trough before next dose)
calculations are accurate with minimal prediction error even if the drug
displays two-compartment pharmacokinetics. See examples further down the page.**

**Two Compartment Model Serum Level, AUC, and Comparison to one-compartment Model Simulations (Excel downloadable File)**

**Modified Goti Model Cl (l/hr) = 6.04*(Clcr/120)^0.8, Vdcentral(L) =
58.4*(weight(kg)/70), Vdperipheral = 38.4*(weight(kg)/70), Q(L/hr) =6.5**

**Creatinine clearance use calculated adjusted body weight when total body
weight greater than learn body weight. **

S**imulations were performed using a modified Goti Model to demonstrate
the effects on AUC and serum levels for incremental changes, +10% and -10%, in
total clearance, Vd central, Vd peripheral and Q. Each independent parameter was
changed iincrementally up to 50% while the other parameters were held constant at
the baseline values. Clearance caused the most dramatic changes in AUC and is
related to renal function. Little change in AUC was noted for other parameters.
Magnitude of changes in serum levels were greatest for clearance >> Vd central >
Vd peripheral & Q.**

The baseline parameter were Clearance (L/hr) = 3.84 , Vcentral (L) = 58.4, Vperipheral (L) = 38.4 Q(L/hr) = 6.5, Baseline AUC = 490. Dose 1000 mg, Tau 12 hours, Infusion Period 2 hours, weight 70 kg, Creatinine Clearance 68 ml/min.

**Comparison of One-Compartment Model Calculated Levels and AUC with Two-Compartment Goti Model Levels and AUC**

**Most dosing programs use a one-compartment open model for dosing and
serum level predictions. This is for several reasons. In clinical practice only
one or two levels are measured which is inadequate to describe a two compartment
model. A two compartment model requires numerous levels in the distribution and
in the elimination phase to fully characterize it. Two compartment model
calculation are much more complicated than a one-compartment model. If
acceptable predictions can be made with a one-compartment model it is preferred
because of ease of use and ease of understanding. It is common clinical
practice either to draw only a trough or a peak after the distribution phase and
a trough. Drawing a peak post distribution and trough after the same dose allows
Vd, K, and AUC to be calculated for the one-compartment model.**

**In the simulations below the one-compartment volume of distribution was
calculated using the level two hours post-infusion from the 2-compartment model.
The level 2 hours post-infusion is after most of the distribution to the
peripheral compartment has occurred. The elimination rate constant for the one-compartment model was calculated using the two hour post-infusion level and the
trough from the 2-compartment model. The calculated parameters, Vd and K, were then placed in a one-compartment open infusion model. The
one-compartment model calculated levels and AUCs were compared to the two
compartment model's for the dosage interval and percent error in predictions for
the one-compartment model were calculated. This was repeated for the clearance
decreased and increased by 10% increments up to 50%.**

**% Error Predicted Level = (One-Compartment Level - Two Compartment
Level) *100/ Two Compartment Level. Values were calculated for the entire dosing
interval from the end of the infusion.**

**% Error AUC = (One-Compartment AUC - Two Compartment AUC) *100/ Two
Compartment AUC for the dosing interval.**

**The baseline parameter were Clearance (L/hr) = 3.84 , Vcentral (L) =
58.4, Vperipheral (L) = 38.4 Q(L/hr) = 6.5, Baseline AUC = 490. Dose 1000 mg,
Tau 12 hours, Infusion Period 2 hours, weight 70 kg, Creatinine Clearance 68
ml/min.**

**The simulations demonstrate that a one-compartment model is adequate for
vancomycin dosing when the modified Goti model describes the two compartment
pharmacokinetics.**

**Dose change to 2000 mg Q24H**

**Dose changed to 3000 mg Q36H**

**Converting A Two-Compartment Open Model Into A Open Compartment Open
Model for Varying Weights and Creatinine Clearances**

A Modified Goti Model was used in the following example. Excel's Solver was used.

A standard dose and frequency such as 1000 mg Q12H was used. Infusion Period 2 hours and height of 70 inches.

Enter a weight range, for example 50 to 100 kg in into the two compartment model in increments of 50 kg, 75 kg and 100 kg

For each weight range enter a creatinine clearance ranges from 15 to 150 ml/min of 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ml/min

Calculate the two compartment serum levels and AUC for all of the above categories.

Calculate the one-compartment model K and Vd for for each two compartment categories and place them in a table along with the values noted in the graphic below (Height, BSA, Weight, Clcr, Vd derived, K derived, Cl =(K*Vd). Note the peak two hours post-infusion and trough from the two compartment levels were used to calculate.

Set up a column to calculated the Clearance (L/hr) based on weight (kg), Clcr (ml/min), and Intercept Solver value.

Cl (L/hour) Based on Solver = Weight (kg) * Solver value + Clcr (ml/min) * Solver value *(1.73/Surface Area) + Intercept. This is your open compartment equation for clearance (L/hr)

Square of Error Cl (L/hr) = (Cl (L/hr) Solver - Clearance one-compartment Derived from Two Compartment)^2

SSE (Sum of Square of Errors) = Sum of all Cl (L/hr) errors.

Set up solver to Minimize the SSE for Cl (L/hr) by changing weight solver value, Clcr solver value, and intercept solver value. In the example an intercept of 0 was found so it may be ignored.

Repeat the above procedure for Vd (L)

Vd (l) Solver= Weight (kg) * Solver value + Clcr (ml/min) * Solver value*(1.73/Surface Area) + Intercept Solver value. This is your open compartment equation for Vd (L).

Square of Error Vd (L) = (Vd (L) Solver - Vd one-compartment Derived from Two Compartment)^2

SSE (Sum of Square of Errors) = Sum of all Vd (L) errors.

Set up solver to Minimize the SSE of Vd by changing weight Solver value, Clcr Solver value, and intercept solver value.

Excel's Solver using the Evolutionary fitting was used in the example below.

The results for the simulation are below.

Linear Regression was performed as shown below and the R^2 value was very high for both Clearance and Vd.

The chart below is constructed using a 50 kg, 70 inch patient given 1000 mg Q12H Infusion Period 2 hours with 20% incremental decrease in clearance from baseline. The lines for two compartment and one-compartment levels are superimposed except earlier in the dosing interval.

This site is developed and maintained for educational use. No warranties are expressed or implied.

If you have questions or suggestions concerning the dosing tools please contact Marshall Pierce PharmD.© 2020 Marshall Pierce